Ayola A Constructed Language Linking the Global Community
Part 3 – Topics of Grammar

 

 3.1 Negation

Negation is the process by which affirmative statements (I am American) are transformed into denials (I am not American). Actions, objects, and sentences are negated. In English, negation is usually represented with not, and the helper verb do or have is often necessary.

 

I love pie. I don’t love pie.
I’ve seen Jill. I haven’t seen Jill.
I am happy. I am not happy.
We have milk. We have juice, but not milk.

Any part of a sentence can be negated in Ayola, just like in English: verbs, don’t go; nouns, not pie; adjectives, not happy; adverbs, not quickly; prepositional phrases, not with us; clauses, it’s not that I hope you play poorly, but that I play well. Whole sentences may also be negated. She didn’t spend a lot of money.

 

3.1.1 Negation of Terms

To negate terms—nouns, verbs, adjectives, phrases, clauses, etc.—the negation word no is placed before the term to be negated. Any part of speech can be negated in Ayola.

 

Moy havats milko. We have milk.
Moy havats suko coe no milko. We have juice but not milk.
Myo amats le lingo. I love languages.
Myo no amats le lingo. I do not love languages.
Moy cantatits rapide coe felitce. We were singing rapidly but happily.
Moy cantatits rapide coe no felitce. We were singing rapidly but not happily.
La torto gemandjats byu moy. The pie was eaten by us.
La torto gemandjats coe no byu moy. The pie was eaten, but not by us.
Cakyo vidits la filmeo. Everyone saw the movie.
No cakyo vidits la filmeo. Not everyone saw the movie
Myo esperats ke vu ludats male ce ke myo ludats bone. I hope that you play poorly and that I play well.
Myo esperats no ke vu ludats male ce ke myo ludats bone. It’s not that I hope you play poorly, but that I play well.
Dyaza frato estats stanka ce trista. Her brother is tired and sad.
Dyaza frato estats stanka coe no trista. Her brother is tired but not sad.
 

 3.1.2 Negation of Sentences

In addition to the negation of particular terms, some concepts require the negation of entire sentences, this bus isn’t going south. Negations of this form are equivalent to the paraphrase it is not the case that this bus is going south. In order to negate an entire sentence, place the sentence negation word Nio at the beginning of the sentence.

For instance, in the following examples,

 

Myo no ludits dumu una semano. I did not play during one week.
Nio myo ludits dumu una semano. It is not the case that I played during one week.

 

In the first sentence the word no negates only the verb ludits and the speaker means that he/she did not play for a whole week (took the week off), whereas in the second sentence the word Nio negates the entire sentence so the speaker means that it is not the case that he/she played for one whole week.

 

3.1.3 Negative Prefixes

There are three negative prefixes in Ayola, which are listed in the table below.

 

Prefix Meaning Used With
non- not nouns, adjectives, verbs
nin- of low degree adjectives
ne- of negative degree verbs

 

The negation prefix non- negates the word to which it is attached and is equivalent to placing the negation word no before the word. However, it is often preferable to have the negated meaning contained within a single word. The low-degree prefix nin- is used in adjective pairs which lack a distinct root for the low degree meaning. The negative-degree prefix ne- is used on verbs to form a word which expresses negative action, emotion, etc. relative to the positive word. Here are some examples of the use of the negative prefixes.

 

Prefix Word Meaning Prefixed Word Meaning
non- metalo metal nonmetala nonmetal
posibla possible nonposibla impossible
frapare to hit nonfrapare to miss
egala equal non-egala unequal
nin- importanta important ninimportanta unimportant
probabla probable ninprobabla improbable
ne- fondare to like nefondare to dislike

 

Note that non- must be hyphenated when it is used on a word beginning with a vowel, so that the result does not break up into no and another false word. Note also the difference between the pair posibla/nonposibla, which describe a binary situation with two possible states, and the pair probabla/ninprobabla, which cover a range of values from 0 to 1. Finally, note the difference between nonfrapare, which expresses the action of not hitting, and nefondare, which expresses a negative emotion as strong as the positive one expressed by fondare.

 

In translating “opposite” words containing prefixes such as dis-, in-/im-, and un-, one should be very careful to identify the intended meaning and use the appropriate Ayola prefix. Note that the English prefixes dis- and un- often—but not always—express the meaning of reverse action, as in ‘disentangle’ and ‘untie’. Such meaning is always expressed by the reverse-action prefix des- in Ayola.

 

3.2 Questions

Questions are the way in which a speaker asks for more information (Where are you going?  Where have you been?).There are three ways of asking questions in Ayola. Questions can be marked by the use of interrogative words, either pronouns (hyo who), adjectives (hwa which), or adverbs (hwande when) or by the use of the head word, ye, or the tail phrases ye ya or ye now. Unlike in English, German, and many other languages, in Ayola the verb and subject of an affirmative sentence are not inverted to form a question (I am going to the store → Am I going to the store?).

 

3.2.1 Questions with Interrogative Pronouns, Adjectives, and Adverbs

The interrogative pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs in Ayola are elementary words. They are used either alone (Hwo? What?) or as part of a sentence. Although some of the interrogative words appear to have roots which take different parts of speech endings, they are actually elementary words which are indivisible and which take no other forms than those shown below.

 

Table 3.2.-1 Interrogative Pronouns, Adjectives, and Adverbs

 

Pronouns
hwo what?
hyo who?
Adjectives
hwa which?
hya what kind of?
Adverbs
hwe how (to what degree)?
hye how ( in what manner)?
hwande when?
hwerve where?
hworde how (by what method)?
hworfe why?

 

Hwo estats vuza namo? What is your name?
Hyo estats vuza favorita awtoro? Who is your favorite author?
Hwa filmeo vu vidits? Which movie did you see?
Hya filmeo estits dwa? What kind of movie was it?
Hwe vyela estats dya? How old is he?
Hye dya cantats la ario? How did she sing the aria?
Hwande voy spozyuts? When are you getting married?
Hwerve dya ganuts dumu dyaza someray vakaconajo? Where is she going for her summer vacation?
Hworde vu reparits la komputero? How did you fix the computer?
Hworfe moy no departats anu tidjurno? Why don’t we leave today?

 

The temporal location adverb hwande and the spatial location adverb hwerve can be prefixed with a preposition root to form temporal and spatial direction adverbs.

 

Fromhwande vu nidocats? Since when (since what time) have you taught?
Tilhwande vu pracuts? Until when (until what time) will you work?
Delhwerve vu venats? From where (from what place) do you come?
Alhwerve vu gonats? Where (to what place) are you going?

 

In the all of the above sentences, the interrogative words occur initially or following an initial preposition. Like in English, interrogative words can move around in sentences for emphasis. See the examples:

 

Myo kumprits nuva komputero.
  Vu farits hwo?
I bought a new computer.
  You did what?
Moy vidits la profesoroy enu la parko.
  Voy vidits hyo enu la parko?
We saw the professors in the park.
  You saw who in the park?
Dwa estits mala filmeo.
  Dwa estits hya filmeo?
It was a bad movie.
  It was what kind of movie?
Dya cantits la ario bele.
  Dya cantits la ario hye?
She sang the aria beautifully.
  She sang the aria how?
Myoza familio nadits enu la oceano.
  Vuza familio nadits hwerve?
My family swam in the ocean.
  Your family swam where?

 

In addition to using only interrogative words to signal questions, many languages make use of intonation to convey that a sentence should be interpreted as a question. For example, English uses a rising intonation on the final word of a sentence to signal that it is a yes/no question, even if the sentence also uses an interrogative word. Intonation is not explicitly marked in English writing, but compare the rise or fall in pitch at the end of the following spoken phrases: going to the store? vs. going to the store. Ayola does not require intonation, but it is compatible with the language. Speakers of Ayola are welcome to utilize their native intonation patterns if they wish, in addition to Ayola’s explicit method of handling questions.

 

Using hwe with multa and mutca

A very common use of the interrogative adverb hwe is with the two quantifiers multa (many) and mutca (much) to form questions about countable and uncountable quantities, respectively. English makes the same association between these concepts, I have many grains of sand but I have much (a lot of) sand.

 

Hwe multa membroy enats la komiteo? How many members are on the committee?
Hwe mutca vodo vu povats bibare? How much water can you drink?
 

Using hya and hye

Questions beginning with both the interrogative adjective hya (what kind of) and interrogative adverb hye (in what manner) can be answered in one of two ways. The questions can be answered in-kind, adjectives for hya (what kind of drink? cold) and adverbs for hye (how [in what manner] did you run? quickly). Alternatively, the questions can be answered by-example, nouns for hya (what kind of drink? a soda), and adjectives for hye (how did you run? fast).

 

For example:
 

Hya animalo estats tato? What kind of animal is that?

 

might be answered with:

 

Vilda. (A) wild (animal).
Domestica. (A) domestic (animal).
Licamika. (A) friendly (animal).

 

but it might just as easily be answered with:

 

Hundo. A dog.
Katso. A cat.
Kugaro. A cougar.

 

In cases where the question asks about abstract nouns, like koloro (color) or formo (shape), there is an exception to the more common formation. In these cases, the question uses the verb havare (have) instead of estare (be [is]) because these abstract nouns describe something that an object has rather than is. In the following example, the flower could have a different color and still be a flower, but it couldn’t be a different object (not a “flower”) and still be a flower.

 

Hya koloro havats la floro? What color is the flower?(Which color does the flower have?)

 

However, as in English and many other languages, possible answers use the verb estare together with an adjective:

 

Dwa estats ruja. It is red. (It is a red flower)
Dwa estats orandja. It is orange. (It is an orange flower)
Dwa estats flava. It is yellow. (It is a yellow flower)
Dwa estats hela. It is brightly colored. (It is a brightly colored flower)

 

 

3.2.2 Questions with the Head Word ye

The second way to form questions in Ayola is by placing the head word ye before a declarative sentence to form an interrogative one. The head word ye always begins a question that anticipates a yes/no answer.

 

Ye voy vwelats lernare Ayola? Do you want to learn Ayola?
Ye moy ganats anu Saturndon? Do we go on Saturday?
Ye vu nastudats fiziko? Are you studying physics?
 

 3.2.3 Questions with Tail Phrases

Tail phrases can be used to convert a statement or request into a question by asking the speaker to commit to it. There are two tail phrases, namely, ye now and ye ya. ye now is used to convert an affirmative statement into an interrogative statement. ye ya converts a negative statement into an interrogative one.

 

Dyay syedits enu la parko, ye now? They sat in the park, didn’t they?
Voy no darfats bibare le vino, ye ya? You don’t drink wine, do you?
Dyay nabesits, ye now? They were kissing, weren’t they?

 

If the declarative statement is negative, ye ya should be used; if the declarative statement is affirmative, ye now should be used.

 

3.2.4 Choice Questions

Often in natural languages we encounter choice questions, i.e. those which refer to a choice between several items. Some examples in English are as follows:

 

Do you want coffee or tea?
Do you like to study or to dance?
Is Bruce working in the house or in the garage?

 

Suppose that we attempted to translate these sentences into Ayola by using the interrogative word ye introduced in the Section 3.2.2.

 

*Ye vu vwelats kafo caw teho?
*Ye vu fondats studare caw dansare?
*Ye Brus napracats enu la hawso caw enu la garadjo?

 

These sentences are starred because in Ayola they do not convey the intended meaning. A sentence beginning with ye in Ayola is always asking the listener to specify the truth or falsity of the embedded declarative sentence, i.e. to reply with an answer of ‘yes’ or ‘no’. A more exact translation of the first of the above Ayola sentences is the following:

 

Is it true that you want coffee or tea?

 

In most cases the correct answer to this question is ‘yes’ but the intention of the speaker of the original above English sentences is to elicit from the listener which of the choices is preferred or intended.

 

In Ayola, such choice questions are based on one of the interrogative h- words, most commonly on one of the interrogative pronouns hwo (what/which) or hyo (who?). In English we sometimes phrase choice questions in the following way:

 

Which do you want, coffee or tea?
Which do you like, to study or to dance?
Where is Bruce working, in the house or in the garage?

 

However, English usage is not precise about how the connected phrase based on ‘or’ is connected to the rest of the sentence. In Ayola this connection must be made with the choice question preposition kyu, which is best translated as ‘of the choice of.’ Here are the Ayola versions of the original choice questions along with their short as well as longer and more precise English translations:

 

Hwo vu vwelats kyu kafo caw teho? Do you want coffee or tea?
(Which do you want of the choice of coffee or tea?)
Hwo vu fondats kyu studare caw dansare? Do you like to study or to dance?
(Which do you like of the choice of to study or to dance?)
Hwerve Brus napracats kyu enu la hawsu caw enu la garadjo? Is Bruce working in the house or in the garage?
(Where is Bruce working of the choice of in the house or in the garage?)

 

Kyu functions like any preposition and can be freely moved around within the sentence.

 

Kyu kafo caw teho, hwo vu vwelats? Of the choice of coffee or tea, which do you want?
Kyu studare caw dansare, hwo vu fondats? Of the choice of to study or to dance, which do you like?

 

Instead of the interrogative pronouns hwo and hyo, the interrogative adjectives hwa (which?) and hya (what kind of?) may be used preceding a noun.

 

Hwa gebibo vu vwelats kyu kafo caw teho? Which drink do you want, coffee or tea?
Hya filmeo vu fondats, kyu brifa iyo caw dura iyo? What kinds of movie do you like, a short one or a long one?
 

3.3 Connectives

A connective is a word that connects words, phrases or clauses within a sentence or a sentence to previous discourse. When it connects clauses to form a longer sentence, a connective acts in the same manner as a conjunction. There are several classes of connectives in Ayola, including coordinating and subordinating connectives—both of which have special discourse and pair forms—and also symmetrical and asymmetrical argument connectives. With the exceptions of discourse and pair forms and a small number of derived determiners and pronouns, all connectives in Ayola are elementary words.

 

3.3.1 Coordinating Connectives

Coordinating connectives connect words, phrases or clauses of equal status. They must appear between the words, phrases or clauses which they connect. There are six coordinating connectives in Ayola, all of which are elementary words, which are listed Table 3.3-1.

 

Table 3.3-1 Coordinating Connectives

 

ce and
cke and… together (from ce kune)
cpe and then (from ce poste)
cay or (inclusive), and/or
caw or (exclusive)
coe but

 

Coordinating Connectives Translated as ‘and’

ce is the basic coordinating connective indicating logical conjunction (and). A sentence containing terms connected by ce is equivalent to the connection of two sentences, the first of which contains the first connected term and the second of which contains the second connected term. Here are some examples in which ce connects nouns, verbs, adjectives, prepositional phrases, and clauses.

 

Cirli mandjuts aploy ce kruckoy. Shirley will eat apples and pears.
Cirli ce myo mandjuts ce bibuts. Shirley and I will eat and drink.
La licamika ce felitca viro parlits aru myo. The friendly and happy man spoke to me.
Dya kurits ayfu la hawso ce aynu la garadjo. She ran out of the house and into the garage.
Cirli mandjuts aploy ce myo bibuts vino. Shirley will eat apples and I will drink wine.

 

Here are some examples in which ce connects subjects, verbs, and direct objects.

 

Lutciano ce Tcetcelya cantits la cansono.= Lutciano cantits la cansono ce Tcetcelya cantits la cansono. Luciano and Cecelia sang the song.= Luciano sang the song and Cecelia sang the song.
Tcetcelya cantits ce swonits la cansono.= Tcetcelya cantits la cansono ce Tcetcelya swonits la cansono. Cecelia sang and played the song.= Cecelia sang the song and Cecelia played the song.
Lutciano cantits la cansono ce la ario.= Lutciano cantits la cansono ce Lutciano cantits la ario. Luciano sang the song and the aria.= Luciano sang the song and Luciano sang the aria.

 

These sentences using ce state in a compact way that the two events occurred but do not specify whether they occurred together or in sequence. If we wish to specify this additional information we may do so by using cke or cpe.

 

Lutciano cke Tcetcelya cantits la cansono. Luciano and Cecelia sang the song   together.
Lutciano cpe Tcetcelya cantits la cansono. Luciano and then Cecelia sang the song.
Tcetcelya cantits cke swonits la cansono. Cecelia sang and played the song together.
Tcetcelya cantits cpe swonits la cansono. Cecelia sang and then played the song.
Lutciano cantits la cansono cpe la ario. Luciano sang the song and then the aria.

 

Note that if the last sentence contained la cansono cke la ario (…the song and also the aria together) it would describe a physical impossibility. Not every combination of connected terms describes a physically possible event. Sentences containing terms connected by cke and cpe are also equivalent to a connection of two sentences.

 

Lutciano cantits la cansono cke Tcetcelya cantits la cansono. Luciano sang the song and Cecelia sang the song together.
Lutciano cantits la cansono cpe Lutciano cantits la ario. Luciano sang the song and then Luciano sang the aria.

 

Coordinating Connectives Translated as ‘or’

cay and caw are the basic coordinating connectives indicating logical disjunction or alternation (or). Cay indicates inclusive alternation (either soup or salad or both) and caw indicates exclusive alternation (either soup or salad but not both). Here are some examples in which cay and caw connect nouns, prepositional phrases, and clauses.

 

Myo vwelats mandjare aploy cay bananoy. I want to eat apples and/or bananas.
Anu tisa pomridjo moy povats ganare alu muzeo cay alu pladjo. This afternoon we can go to a museum and/or to a beach.
Anu tisa pomridjo moy povats ganare alu muzeo cay moy povats repozare onu pladjo. This afternoon we can go to a museum and/or we can lie on the beach.
Myo vwelats mandjare aplo caw orango. I want to eat an apple or an orange.
Anu tinakto moy povats ganare alu teatro caw alu restoranto. Tonight we can go to a theater or to a restaurant.   
Anu tinakto moy povats ganare alu teatro caw moy povats restare enhayme. Tonight we can go to a theater or we can stay at home.

 

Coordinating Connective Translated as ‘but’

coe isthe basic coordinating connective indicating logical conjunction with contrast (but). Coe often occurs with the negative word no either as the adjacent pair coe no (but not)or as the separated words no… coe (not…but) within a sentence. Here are some examples in which coe connects nouns, adjectives, prepositional phrases, and clauses.

 

Myo estats stanka coe felitca.  I am tired but happy.
Myo estats stanka coe myo estats felitca. I am tired but I am happy.
Dya ganits alu la lyako coe no alu la oceano. He went to the lake but not to the ocean.
Myo brawkats no kalkulatoro coe komputero. I need not a calculator but a computer.
 

3.3.2 Coordinating Discourse Connectives

All coordinating connectives may be prefixed with an I- to form discourse connectives, which connect a sentences to previous discourse. As discourse connectives they must appear in the initial position of the sentence. While the discourse connectives are pronounced with regular stress, it should be noted that Icoe, despite being a very short word, has three syllables (I-co-e) and is therefore stressed on the second syllable.

 

Table 3.3-2 Discourse Connectives

 

Ice í-ce moreover
Icke í-cke and jointly, concurrently
Icpe í-cpe then (afterward)
Icay í-cay or in addition
Icaw í-caw alternatively
Icoe i-có-e however

 

Cirli aportuts aploy. Ice dya aportuts ekcelenta vino. Shirley will bring apples. Moreover, she will bring an excellent wine.
La vento naplusspidyats. Icke la ondoy napluskelsyats. The wind is speeding up. Concurrently, the waves are getting higher.
Moy ganits alu la muzeo. Icpe moy ganits alu la restoranto. We went to the museum. Then, we went to the restaurant.
Anu tisa pomridjo moy povats ganare alu muzeo. Icay moy povats repozare onu pladjo. This afternoon we can go to a museum. Or in addition, we can lie on the beach.
Anu tinakto moy povats ganare alu teatro. Icaw moy povats restare enhayme. Tonight we can go to a theater. Alternatively, we can stay at home.
Myo estats stanka. Icoe myo estats felitca. I am tired. However, I am happy.

 

In Ayola, unlike in English, a comma is not necessary following a discourse connective unless the connected sentence itself already has a comma. Myo estits stanka. Ice myo estits nefelitca (I was tired. Moreover, I was unhappy).

 

3.3.3 Coordinating Connective Pairs

A coordinating connective pair consists of two words: an initial word which occurs before the connected terms or clauses and a medial word which occurs between them (both necessary and proper). In six of the pairs, the second, medial word is one of the coordinating connectives described above and its partner, the initial word, is derived from it by prefixing e-. In the seventh pair, both the initial and medial words are distinct elementary words.

 

Table 3.3-3 Coordinating Connective Pairs

 

ece .. ce .. both ..  and ..
ecke .. cke ..  both .. and jointly .. ;
as … , …
ecpe .. cpe .. first .. and then ..
ecay .. cay .. either (inclusive) .. or ..
ecaw .. caw .. either (exclusive) .. or ..
ecoe .. coe ..  (contrastingly) .. but .. ;
although … , …
neoy .. noy .. neither .. nor ..

 

In all cases, the initial word cannot stand alone and must be used in combination with the medial word. While the medial words ce, cay, caw, and coe, can stand alone as connectives, The medial word noy cannot stand alone and requires the initial word neoy in order to negate the first term.

 

Here are some examples of the connective pairs connecting terms:

 

Ece dya ce dyo venits alu la festo. Both she and he came to the party.
Ecke dya cke dyo venits alu la festo. Both she and he (jointly) came to the party.
Ecpe dya cpe dyo venits alu la festo. First she and then he came to the party.
Mandjaw ecay la salato cay la supo. Eat either the salad or the soup or both.
Mandjaw ecaw la salato caw la supo. Eat either the salad or the soup.
Dya estats ecoe vyela coe forta. He is (contrastingly) old but strong.
Neoy la viroy noy la femoy vwelats cantare. Neither the men nor the women want to sing.

 

Here are some examples of the connective pairs connecting clauses:

 

Ecke le printempo progresats cke la arbroy foletcats. As the spring progresses, the trees leaf out.
Ecpe moy ganits alu la pladjo cpe moy vidits filmeo. First we went to the beach, and then we saw a movie.
Ecaw mandjaw la salato caw bibaw la suko. Either eat the salad or drink the juice.
Ecoe dya estats vyela coe dya estats forta. Although he is old, he is strong.
Neoy la viroy vwelats cantare noy la femo vwelats fredonare. Neither do the men want to sing nor do the women want to hum.

 

Coordinating connective pairs serve two functions. First, they can resolve ambiguities resulting from the occurrence of two or more connectives within a single sentence.

 

Djon caw Dik ce Bil helputs myo. John or Dick and Bill will help me.

 

This sentence is as ambiguous in Ayola as it is in English because the grouping of the connected entities is unclear; exactly who is helping the speaker? The ambiguity can be clarified with the use of coordinating connective pairs. Note that the grouping is the same in sentences (1) and (3).

 

(1) Ecaw Djon caw Dik ce Bil helputs myo. Either John or (Dick and Bill) will help me.
(2) Ece Djon caw Dik ce Bil helputs myo. Both (John or Dick) and Bill will help me.
(3) Djon caw ece Dik ce Bil helputs myo. John or both Dick and Bill will help me.      

 

Second, coordinating connective pairs serve to alert the listener that a connection is about to occur, just as in English. Compare the following sentences:

 

Dya estats bela ce inteligenta. She is beautiful and intelligent.
Dya estats ece bela ce inteligenta. She is both beautiful and intelligent.
Dya fondats lo aplo ce lo orango. She likes apples and oranges.
Dya fondats ece lo aplo ce lo orango. She likes both apples and oranges.

 

Although the meaning of each member of each pair of sentences is identical, the listener knows that in the second member the speaker intends to make a connection before the word bela or aplo is uttered. In addition, because ece is distinct from ce, the listener knows after hearing ece that the speaker is initiating a new connection rather than connecting the verb fondats with another verb.

 

Logical Determiners and Pronouns

Four of the coordinating connective pairs have related words called the logical determiners and pronouns which are simple words consisting of a root and the –a and –o endings, respectively. These words are commonly used in English in their pronoun function.

 

Table 3.3-4 Logical Determiners and Pronouns

 

amba / amboy both
aydra / aydro either (inclusive)
awdra / awdro either (exclusive)
nedra / nedro neither

 

These words can be used to replace a whole coordinating connective pair, making use of either a class word (people, food, etc.) or replacing the whole phrase:

 

Ece dya ce dyo venits alu la festo. Both she and he came to the party.
→ Amba personoy venits alu la festo. Both people came to the party.
→ Amboy venits alu la festo. Both came to the party.
Mandjaw ecay la salato cay la supo. Eat either the salad or the soup or both.
→ Mandjaw aydra tcibo. Eat either food (or both).
→ Mandjaw aydro. Eat either one (or both).
Mandjaw ecaw la salato caw la supo. Eat either the salad or the soup.
→ Mandjaw awdra tcibo. Eat either food (but not both).
→ Mandjaw awdro. Eat either one (but not both).
Neoy la viroy noy la femoy vwelatscantare. Neither the men nor the women want to sing.
→ Nedra grupo vwelats cantare. Neither group wants to sing.
→ Nedro vwelats cantare. Neither one wants to sing.  

3.3.4 Subordinating Connectives

A subordinating connective introduces a subordinate clause which together with a main clause forms a sentence.  There are five subordinating connectives in Ayola, all of which are elementary words.  The subordinating connective and the subordinate clause which it heads may either follow the main clause (I will go inside if it rains.) or begin the sentence (If it rains (,/then) I will go inside.)  When the subordinating connective and the subordinate clause begin the sentence, either a  comma or (in two cases) the consequent connective cu (then) must be used before the main clause.

 

Table 3.3-5 Subordinating Connectives

 

ci if , / cu
cwi if-and-only-if , / cu
nurci only-if ,
necwi unless ,
cnoci whether-or-not ,

 

Here are some examples of the subordinating connectives in both the medial and initial positions.

 

Myo luduts ci la vetero estats bona. I will play if the weather is good.
Ci la vetero estats bona (, / cu) myo ludats. If the weather is good (, / then) I will play.
Myo luduts cwi vu luduts. I will play if-and-only-if you play.
Cwi vu luduts (, / cu) myo luduts. If-and-only-if you play (, / then) I will play.
Myo luduts nurci la vetero estats bona. I will play only-if the weather is good.
Nurci la vetero estats bona, myo luduts. Only-if the weather is good will I play.
Myo luduts necwi la vetero estats mala. I will play unless the weather is bad.
Necwi la vetero estats mala, myo luduts. Unless the weather is bad, I will play.
Myo luduts cnoci la vetero estats bona. I will play whether-or-not the weather is good.
Cnoci la vetero estats bona, myo luduts. Whether-or-not the weather is good, I will play.

 

Note that the only case in which the Englsih grammatical structure differs from that in Ayola is the case of nurci, where, in the connective-initial form, the inversion of the helping verb in the main clause (will I play) is the best grammatical form.

 

3.3.5 Subordinating Discourse Connectives

The consequent connective cu may be prefixed with I- to form the subordinating discourse connective Icu (therefore).  Icu introduces a statement whose truth is implied by a conditional statement and the truth of one of its components, both of which have been stated previously.  The following five examples illustrate the use of Icu with the preceding five pairs of equivalent conditional statements given in the preceding section.

 

La vetero estats bona. The weather is good.
Icu myo luduts. Therefore I will play.

Vu luduts. You will play.
Icu myo luduts. Therefore I will play.

&

Myo luduts. I will play.
Icu vu luduts. Therefore you will play.

Myo luduts. I will play.
Icu la vetero estats bona. Therefore the weather is good.

La vetero estats mala. The weather is bad.
Icu myo no luduts. Therefore I will not play.

&

Myo luduts. I will play.
Icu la vetero estats bona. Therefore the weather is good.

La vetero estats bona/mala. The weather is good/bad.
Icu myo luduts. Therefore I will play.

 

Note that in the case of cwi (if-and-only-if) and necwi (unless) there are two possible conclusions which follow from the conditional statement and the truth of one of its components.  Note also that in the case of cnoci (whether-or-not)the concluding statement about playing is true independent of the state of the weather.

 

3.3.6 The Symmetric-Argument Connective cwe

Arguments are symmetric if their order can be reversed without a change in meaning (I mixed the milk and the chocolate).The connective cwe connects symmetric arguments of nouns, verbs, and prepositions when these arguments occur on the same side of the noun, verb, or preposition in the sentence. Cwe can only connect noun phrases, pronouns, and names which serve as arguments of nouns, verbs and prepositions; it cannot connect adjectives, quantifiers, verbs, prepositions or sentences.

 

Here are some examples of words expressing a relation between symmetric arguments.

 

Dik estats frato jwi Brus. Dick is a brother of Bruce.
Dik estats amiko jwi Djim. Dick is a friend of Jim.
Vuza gerespondo memats myozo. Your answer is the same as mine.
Vuza gerespondo rujnats myozo. Your answer is different from mine.
Duso mwa treso egalats seso. Two times three equals six.
Lowel bliskats Dreykut. Lowell is near Dracut.
Lowel distats Roma. Lowell is distant from Rome.

 

By using the connective cwe we may put the symmetric arguments on the same side of the relational noun, verb or preposition as symmetric subjects of the relation.

 

Dik cwe Brus estats fratoy. Dick and Bruce are brothers.
Dik cwe Djim estats amikoy. Dick and Jim are friends.
Vuza gerespondo cwe myozo memats. Your answer and mine are the same.
Vuza gerespondo cwe myozo rujnats. Your answer and mine are different.
Duso mwa treso cwe seso egalats. Two times three and six are equal.
Lowel cwe Dreykut bliskats. Lowell and Dracut are near together.
Lowel cwe Roma distats. Lowell and Rome are far apart.

 

Note that in English, additional words such as ‘together’ or ‘apart’ help to clarify the joint-argument nature of the relationship. Such words are unnecessary in Ayola.

 

Similar sentences involving the connective ce, while not false, would not unambiguously express the symmetric-argument nature of the relationship. For example, in the sentence

 

Dik ce Brus estats fratoy. Dick and Bruce are brothers.

 

It might be that Dick is the brother of Bob and Bruce is the brother of Ann in different families. Both Dick and Bob are brothers of someone. Unlike a sentence containing ce, a sentence containing cwe is not equivalent to the connection of two sentences.

 

Dik cwe Brus estats fratoy. Dick and Bruce are brothers.
≠*Dik estats frato cwe Brus estats frato. ≠ Dick is a brother and Bruce is a brother.

 

Here the second Ayola sentence is not grammatically correct because cwe cannot be used to connect sentences.

 

Additional uses of cwe

The above examples used nouns, stative verbs and prepositions expressing a time-invariant relation such as friendship, equality or nearness. Cwe may also be used with dynamic verbs, which express a time-varying action or process.

 

La bolo kolidyats la bastono. The ball collides with the stick.
= La bolo cwe la bastono kolidyats. = The ball and stick collide.
La fumo namiksyats la lufto. The smoke is mixing with the air.
= La fumo cwe la lufto namiksyats. = The smoke and the air are mixing.
Elízabet spozyits Fitswilyam. Elizabeth married Fitzwilliam.
= Elízabet cwe Fitswilyam spozyits. = Elizabeth and Fitzwilliam married.

 

Many verbs such as compare, join, separate, mix, etc. denote processes which operate on two or more objects symmetrically. In English we may use the conjunction ‘and’ or the prepositions with, to, or from, depending on the verb. In Ayola we always use the connective cwe.

 

Dya komparits la hotelo cwe la motelo. She compared the hotel and/with/to the motel.
Myo juntwits la breto cwe la muro. I joined the shelf and/with/to the wall.
Vu separwuts la hundo cwe la katso. You will separate the dog and/from the cat.
Dya mikswits la farino cwe la sukero. She mixed the flour and/with the sugar.

 

Note the great variety of the possible connective words used in English and the great simplicity of the use of the single word cwe in Ayola.

 

In a passive construction cwe occurs before the verb and connects the grammatical subjects of the passive verb (the logical objects).

 

La hotelo cwe la motelo gekomparits byu dya. The hotel and the motel were compared by him.
La farino cwe la sukero gemikswits byu dya. The flour and the sugar were mixed by her.

 

cwe also occurs before the verb and connects the grammatical subjects when the verb is the intransitive member of an intransitive/transitive pair and denotes a joint action.

 

La oylo cwe la vodo namiksyats. The oil and the water are mixing.
La buso cwe la caro kolidyits. The bus and the car collided.

 

cwe is also used to connect symmetric arguments in a function of at least two arguments such as the simple arithmetic functions.

 

la sumo jwi x cwe y the sum of x and y
la sumo jwi x cwe y cwe z the sum of x and y and z
la produto jwi x cwe y the product of x and y
la produto jwi x cwe y cwe z the product of x and y and z

 

cwe is also used to connect the objects of the verbs describing the associated arithmetic operations.

 

Myo adiconits x cwe y. I added x and/to y.
Myo adiconits x cwe y cwe z. I added x and y and z.
Dya multiplikits x cwe y. He multiplied x and/by y.
Dya multiplikits x cwe y cwe z. He multiplied x and y and z.
 

3.3.7 The Asymmetric-Argument Connective cwa

Arguments are asymmetric when their order cannot be reversed without a change in meaning. The connective cwa connects asymmetric arguments of nouns, verbs, and prepositions when these arguments are of the same type or category and occur on the same side of the noun, verb, or preposition in the sentence. Cwa can only connect noun phrases, pronouns and names which serve as arguments of nouns, verbs and prepositions; it cannot connect adjectives, quantifiers, verbs, prepositions or sentences.

 

Some verbs such as prefer, favor, etc. denote processes which operate on two or more objects of the same type asymmetrically. In English we may use the prepositions to, for or from depending on the verb. In Ayola we always use the connective cwa.

 

Tisa docoy preferats le teho cwa le kafo. These teachers prefer tea to coffee.
La varma vetero favrats moy cwa dyay. The warm weather favors us over them.

 

A larger group of verbs which use the connective cwa is the group of ditransitive causative verbs derived from prepositions such as frentware (to cause to be in front of) and onderware (to cause to be under). In this context, the best translation of cwa is with respect to. However, the best translation of the overall sentence is a paraphrase.

 

La parlo frentwits syo cwa la podio. The speaker fronted himself with respect to the podium.
=The speaker put himself in front of the podium.
Deyv onderwits la kablo cwa la tablo. Dave “underized” the cable with respect to the table.
=Dave put the cable under the table.

 

cwa is used to connect asymmetric arguments in a function of only two arguments such as the simple arithmetic functions.

 

la diferenso jwi x cwa y the difference of x and y
la kwociento jwi x cwa y the quotient of x and y

 

cwa is used to connect the objects of the verbs describing the associated arithmetic operations.

 

Vu dekrementits x cwa y. You decremented x by y.
Dyo dividits x cwa y. He divided x by y.

cwa is also used to describe scores, votes, etc. denoting a comparison between two counts.

 

Da Bruinz venkits Da Flayerz kwantu 4 (kwaro) cwa 2 (duso). The Bruins defeated the Flyers 4-2.
Gor venkits Buc kwantu 50,999,897 votoy cwa 50,456,002 votoy. Gore defeated Bush 50,999,897 votes to 50,456,002 votes.
 

3.3.8 Grouping with Connectives

 

Connectives Connecting Terms and Clauses

When connectives are used in a complex sentence to connect both terms and clauses, commas must be used to indicate the scope of the connection. The following unpunctuated sentence would be ambiguous in Ayola as it would be in English.

 

Djon vizitits Tom ce Dik ce Hari vizitits Djordj. John visited Tom and Dick and Harry visited George.

 

There are two possible interpretations:

 

Djon vizitits Tom, ce Dik ce Hari vizitits Djordj. John visited Tom, and Dick and Harry visited George.
Djon vizitits Tom ce Dik, ce Hari vizitits Djordj. John visited Tom and Dick, and Harry visited George.

 

In this case, both Ayola and English follow the same rules of punctuation and grouping.

 

 3.4 Conjunctions

A conjunction is a word that conjoins clauses within a sentence. There is one elementary conjunction and numerous compound conjunctions. All conjunctions end with –ke.

 

3.4.1 The Elementary Conjunction

The elementary conjunction is the consequential conjunction ake. It conjoins a clause containing either the consequential adjective sya (such a) or the consequential adverb swe (so) to a consequent clause. ake always appears in the medial position.

 

Dya estats sya klawno ake cakyo skratats mutce. He is such a clown that everyone laughs a lot.
Dwa estits swe varma ake la profesoro farits la klaseo efe. It was so hot that the professor held the class outside.
 

3.4.2 Compound Conjunctions

Compound conjunctions are created by joining preposition roots to the truth-affirming clausal word ke. (See the following chapter for a more detailed discussion of clausal words.)

 

Compound conjunctions may appear in either medial or initial positions within a sentence.

 

.

Dyay dansits kawske myo cantits. They danced because I sang.
Moy cantits postke la festo finits. We sang after the party was over
Kawske myo cantits, dyay dansits. Because I sang, they danced.
Postke la festo finits, moy cantits. After the party was over, we sang.

 

Table 3.4-1 Common Compound Conjunctions

 

Ayola Preposition

English

Ayola Conjunction

English

anteyu before anteyke before
postu after postke after
dumu during dumke while
fromu since fromke since
tilu until tilke until
medu by means of medke (by means of that)
furu in order to furke in order that
kawsu because of kawske because
trotsu in spite of trotske although
pwaru in return for pwarke (in return for that)
anstu instead of anstke (instead of that)
vonu about vonke (about that)

 

Here are some examples of the common compound conjunctions listed in the table:

 

Myo mandjits anteyke dya mandjits. I ate before he ate.
Myo enletyits postke dya enletiyits. I went to bed after he went to bed.
Dumke dya dormits, myo lergits. While she slept, I read.
Fromke dya arivits, moy nifarats multacozoy. Since she arrived, we have done many things.
Tilke dya departats, moy geokuputs. Until she leaves, we will be busy.
Medke myo uzits komputero, myo farits lagepraco mutce pluse rapide. By using a computer, I did my work much  more rapidly.
Furke voy awdats bone, syedaw pluse   bliske. In order that you hear well, sit closer.
Kawske dwa pluvetcits, myo no ganits. Because it rained, I didn’t go.
Trotske dwa nivetcits, myo ganits. Although it snowed, I went.
Pwarke vu faruts la tabeloy, myo skributsla teksto. In return for your doing the tables, I will  write the text.
Anstke moy mandjuts enhayme, zay moymandjaw enu restoranto. Instead of our eating at home, let’s eat at  a restaurant.
Myo estats felitca vonke dya nalernatsAyola rapide. I am happy that she is learning Ayola quickly.

 

The English translations given in parenthesis in Table 3.4-1 are literal translations of the Ayola but would not be used in correct grammatical English. Instead, a gerundive construction or just the conjunction ‘that’ would be used, as in the following phrases:

 

medke myo uzits komputero … by using a computer …
pwarke vu faruts la tabeloy … in return for your doing the tables …
anstke moy mandjats enhayme … instead of our eating at home …
myo estats felitca vonke … I am happy that …

 

Two commonly used conjunctions deserve special comment because their translations in English are different from the underlying prepositions.

 

Ayola Preposition English Ayola Conjunction English
anu at/in (time) anke when
enu at/in (space) enke where

 

Here are some examples:

 

Anke la vetero estuts bona myo ganuts. When the weather is good, I will go.
Enke dze estats fumo, dze estats fayro. Where there is smoke, there is fire.

 

 

 3.5 Clausal Words

Clausal words are words that begin clauses which act as the subject or object of a larger, encompassing clause. For example: I know what you did last summer, where ‘what you did…’ is the object of ‘I know’. The clauses headed by clausal words may be embedded within sentences or begin them, as in why she doesn’t wear a hat, I don’t know. There are two types of clausal words: elementary and compound.

 

3.5.1 Elementary Clausal Words

There are two elementary clausal words in Ayola, the truth-affirming clausal word ke and the non-committal clausal word kuye.

 

Truth-Affirming Clausal Word

The truth-affirming clausal word, ke (that), indicates that the speaker is affirming the truth of the subordinate clause. That is, in the following sentences ‘she’ does, in fact, understand the sentence.

 

Ke dya komprenits la satso surprizits myo.

That she understood the sentence surprised me.

Dya no sabits ke dya komprenits la satso.

He didn’t know that she understood the sentence.

y vu sabats ke dya komprenits la satso?

Do you know that she understood the sentence?

 

Note that in all three of these cases the truth of the proposition dya komprenits la satso occurring within the ke-clause is affirmed, independently of whether the main clause is affirmative, negative, or interrogative.

 

Non-Committal Clausal Word

The non-committal clausal word kuye indicates that the speaker is not committing himself/herself to the truth of the subordinate clause. That is, it is uncertain whether or not ‘she’ came.

 

Kuye dya venits estats importenta. Whether (or not) she came is important.
Myo kwayrits kuye dya venits. I asked whether (or not) she came.
Dya no dicits kuye dya fondits la libro. She didn’t say whether (or not) she liked the book.
Ye vu kwayrits kuye dya venits? Did you ask whether (or not) she  came?
Ye vu nidecidats kuye vu ganuts alu Europa? Have you decided whether (or not)  you will go to Europe?

 

Note that in all of the above sentences the truth or falsity of the subordinate clause beginning with kuye is not affirmed (whether or not she came), independently of whether the main clause is affirmative, negative, or interrogative.

 

3.5.2 Compound Clausal Words

The compound clausal words include pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs. They are formed by prefixing the interrogative elementary words, like hwo (what) with ki– and dropping the h. They begin a clause which may stand alone or function as the subject or object of a verb. If the clause functions as a subject it must be followed by a comma before the rest of the sentence. This is not always the case in English, for example Kiwo myo estats, suprizits dya (What I am surprised him).

 

Table 3.5-1 Compound Clausal Words

 

Pronoun kiwo what
kiyo who
Adjective kiwa which
kiya what kind of
Adverb kiwe how (to what degree)
kiye how (in what manner)
kiwande when
kiwerve where
kiworde how (by what method)
kiworfe why

Clausal Pronouns

The clausal pronouns kiwo and kiyo act as the subject of a clause which may stand alone, e.g. as a title, or be embedded in a larger sentence as subject or object. They occur only in the singular form. Note the distinction between the clausal and interrogative forms of the pronouns below.

 

Kiwo Myo Farits Anu Tisa Somero What I Did This Summer
Hwo myo farits anu tisa somero? What did I do this summer?

 

The following two sentences illustrate the embedding of the clause in a larger sentence, first as subject and then as object. Note that Ayola requires a comma separating the clause beginning the sentence and acting as the sentence’s subject from the rest of the sentence. English does not always require this.

 

Kiwo myo farits anu tisa somero, surprizits dya. What I did this summer surprised him.
Vu sabats kiwo myo farits anu tisa somero. You know what I did this summer.

 

Here are more examples:

 

Kiyo skratats finte, skratats pluste bone. Who laughs last, laughs best.
Myo no sabats kiyo skratats finte. I don’t know who laughs last.
Ye vu sabats kiyo skratats finte? Do you know who laughs last?

Kiwo and kiyo are also used in embedded clauses expressing choice questions.

 

Ye vu sabats kiwo dya vwelats kyu kafo caw teho? Do you know whether she wants coffee or tea?
(Do you know which she wants of the choice of coffee or tea?
)
Ye dya decidits kiwo dya vwelats farare kyu studare caw dansare? Did she decide whether she wants to study or to dance?
(Did she decide which she wants to do of the choice of to study or to dance?
)

 

Note that the simplest English translation involves the use of the word ‘whether’ but this is not translated with kuye in Ayola. Using kuye in the first example would cause the English translation to become do you know whether or not she wants coffee or tea? which could be correctly answered by a single ‘yes’ or ‘no’ and fail to provide the information which the speaker wants.

 

Clausal Adjectives

The clausal adjectives modify a noun acting as the subject of a clause which may stand alone, e.g. as a title, or be embedded in a larger sentence as a subject or object. Note the distinction between the clausal and interrogative forms of the adjectives below:

 

Kiwa Libroy Vu Lergits Which Books You Read
Hwa libroy vu lergits? Which books did you read?
Kiya Somero Vu Paswits What Kind of Summer You Spent
Hya somero vu paswits? What kind of summer did you spend?

 

The following two sentences illustrate the embedding of the clause in a larger sentence, first as subject and then as object. Note the required comma when used as a subject.

 

Kiya somero vu paswits, surprizits dya. What kind of summer you spent surprised him.
Myo sabats kiya somero vu paslits. I know what kind of summer you spent.

 

Here are more examples:

 

Myo decidits kiwa paisoy myo vizituts. I decided which countries I will visit.
Ye vu sabats kiya animal tato estats? Do you know what kind of animal that is?
 

Clausal Adverbs

The clausal adverbs modify a verb in a clause. The clause may stand alone, e.g. as a title, or be embedded in a larger sentence as a subject or object.

 

Note the distinction between the clausal and interrogative forms of the adverbs below:

 

Kiworfe Moy Brawkats Bona Prezidento Why We Need a Good President
Hworfe moy brawkats bona prezidento? Why do we need a good president?
Kiworde Le Supernovo Eksplodats How a Supernova Explodes
Hworde le supernova eksplodats? How does a supernova explode?

 

In English, for pronouns, adjectives and adverbs, the distinction between the clause and the interrogative sentence is indicated by the inverted word order (‘I did’ vs. ‘did I do’; ‘you read’ vs. ‘did you read’; ‘you spent’ vs. ‘did you spend’; ‘we need’ vs. ‘do we need’; ‘a supernova explodes’ vs. ‘does a supernova explode’). Ayola never uses this type of inversion. Instead, the prefix ki- alerts the listener or reader that what follows is a clause and does not start a question.

 

Here are more examples:

 

Myo sabats kiye dya cantits ce kiwe la awdomo amits dyaza cantajo. I know how (in what manner) she sang and how (to what degree) the audience loved her singing.
Dya lernits kiworde studare. She learned how to study.
Kiworfe dya no trazats kapelo, myo no komprendats. Why he doesn’t wear a hat, I don’t understand.
Myo no povats kredare kiwe vyela tisa arbro estats! I can’t believe how old this tree is!
Dya dicits aru myo kiye farare tato. She told me how to do that.
Moy kalkulits kiwande la eklipsajo natcyats. We calculated when the eclipse begins.
Myo fondats kiwerve dya studits. I like where she studied.
 

 3.5.3 Phrases Containing Clausal Words and Infinitives

Phrases containing one of the compound clausal words and an infinitive are used in Ayola, as similar constructions are used in the natural languages, to produce a more compact form of expression (I don’t know what to do).

 

Phrases Containing Clausal Pronouns and an Infinitive

There are two kinds of phrases containing one of the clausal pronouns kiwo or kiyo, and an infinitive:

  1. When the phrase begins with a clausal pronoun, the clausal pronoun is the direct object of the infinitive. ‘…what to do.’
  2. When the phrase begins with a preposition plus a clausal pronoun, the clausal pronoun is the object of the preposition and the prepositional phrase modifies the infinitive. ‘…to whom to tell the story.’

 

Here are some examples of both types:

 

Myo no sabats kiwo vizitare. I don’t know what to visit.
Dya nidecidats kiyo invitare. She has decided on (who) the people to invite.
Ye vu sabats aru kiyo rakontare la storio. Do you know to whom to tell the story?

 

Such sentences are really just compact forms of longer sentences which have full clauses with a subject and a form of a helping verb such as povare (to be able), culdare (to be obliged) or devare (to be compelled), before the infinitive or an indicative form of the verb replacing the infinitive.

 

Myo no sabats kiwo myo culdats vizitare. I don’t know what I should visit.
Dya nidecidats kiyo dya invituts. She has decided whom she will invite.
Ye vu sabats alu kiyo myo culdats rakontare la storio? Do you know to whom I should tell the story?
 

Phrases Containing a Clausal Adjective and an Infinitive

Phrases may also contain one of the clausal adjectives kiwa or kiya and an infinitive.

 

Myo no sabats kiwa urboy vizitare. I don’t know what cities to visit.
Ye dya nidecidats kiya robo trazare? Has she decided on what kind of dress to wear?
 

Phrases Containing a Clausal Adverb and an Infinitive

Phrases may also contain one of the clausal adverbs and an infinitive.

 

Ye vu sabats kiworde funconware tisa komputeray programo? Do you know how to run this computer program?
Moy decidintats kiwerve restare coe no kiwande departare. We have decided on where to stay but not on when to depart.

 

In all cases the compact forms allow the speaker to communicate the basic idea without having to state explicitly the particular subject and helping verb or verb tense.

 

 3.6 Relative Words

Relative words begin relative clauses, which are subordinate clauses that modify nouns or noun phrases, as in: The man who ate the sandwich, where ‘who’ is the relative word and ‘who ate the sandwich’ is the relative clause. There are three relative words in Ayola: the relative pronoun kyo, the relative adverb kye, and the relative clausal word kyake. Unlike the clauses formed with clausal words, relative clauses are strictly modifiers and cannot stand alone or be used as subjects or objects of a verb.

 

3.6.1 Relative Pronoun

The relative pronoun is kyo (who/what/which). Note that kyo is not inflected and is used to modify singular and plural nouns denoting animate or inanimate objects.

 

La persono kyo skratats finte skratats pluste bone. The person who laughs last laughs best.
Myo fondats le profesoro kyo eksplikats klare. I like professors who explain clearly.
Myo nilergats la libro kyo onats la tablo. I have read the book which is on the table.
 

 3.6.2 Relative Adverb

The relative adverb is kye. The various meanings of kye are clearly indicated by the meaning of the noun which precedes it. For example, when kye follows metodo (method) it means by which; when it follows razono (reason) it means why, etc. Kye has many translations depending on the noun which it follows.

 

La metodo kye dya nadits estits ekstraordinera. The method by which he swam was extraordinary.
Mark dicits alu myo la razono kye dyay empregits myo. Mark told me the reason why they hired me.
La degreo kye dya kreskyits dumu una djaro surprizats myo. The degree to which he grew in one year surprises me.
La maniero kye dya tokits placits cakyo. The manner in which she played pleased everybody.
Dya departuts anu la djurno kye dya arivuts. She will leave on the day when he arrives.
Myo sabats la lwoko kye dya studits. I know the place where she studied.

 

Sometimes kye may be translated as ‘that’ in English.

 

 3.6.3 Relative Clausal Word

The relative clausal word is kyake (such that). kyake is followed by an independent clause that could stand on its own as a sentence. This clause further specifies the person or thing denoted by the preceding noun. kyake is useful in statements made in mathematics and logic.

 

Dze egzistats situaciono kyake cakyo timats ce nulyo sabats kiwo dya culdats farare. There exists a situation such that everyone is scared and no one knows what he/she should do.
 

 3.6.4 Relative Phrases Containing Relative Words and Infinitives

Relative phrases containing either the relative pronoun kyo or the relative adverb kye and an infinitive are used in Ayola, as similar constructions are used in the natural languages, to produce a more compact form of expression.

 

Relative Phrases Containing kyo and an Infinitive

There are two kinds of relative phrases containing kyo and an infinitive:

  1. When the relative phrase begins with kyo, kyo is the direct object of the infinitive. things to do.
  2. When the relative phrase begins with a preposition plus kyo, kyo is the object of the preposition and the prepositional phrase modifies the infinitive: to which to give (to).

 

Here are some examples of both types:

 

Dze estats multa cozoy kyo farare. There are many things to do.
Myo no sabats la pluste bona urboy kyo vizitare. I don’t know the best cities to visit.
Ye vu sabats la pluste kwieta lwokoy enu kyo syedare cke lergare? Do you know the quietest places (in which) to sit and read (together)?
Dya nidecidats la organizacionoy anu kyo donare. She has decided on the organizations (to which) to give (to).

 

Note that the English relative pronouns ‘who’ and ‘which’, usually used to translate kyo, must be omitted in the English translation when the relative pronoun is the direct object of the infinitive (Sentences 1 and 2) and may be omitted when the relative pronoun is the object of a preposition (Sentences 3 and 4). In Ayola kyo may never be omitted.

 

Such sentences are really just compact forms of longer sentences having full relative clauses with a subject and a form of a helping verb such as povare (to be able), culdare (to be obliged) or mustare (to be compelled), before the infinitive or an indicative form of the verb replacing the infinitive. Here are some possible longer sentences corresponding to the above compact ones:

 

Dze estats multa cozoy kyo myo mustats farare. There are many things which I must do.
Myo no sabats la pluste bona urboy kyo moy culdats vizitare. I don’t know the best cities which we should visit.
Ye vu sabats la pluste kwieta lwokoy enu kyo tyo povats syedare cke lergare? Do you know the quietest places in which one can sit and read (together)?
Dya nidecidats la organizacionoy aru kyo dya donuts. She has decided on the organizations to which she will give.

 

The compact forms allow the speaker to communicate the basic idea without having to state explicitly the particular subject and helping verb or verb tense.

 

Relative Phrases Containing kye and an Infinitive

In some cases similar phrases containing the relative adverb kye may be used when the noun modified by the relative phrases makes the meaning of kye clear.

 

Ye vu sabats la pluste kwieta lwokoy kye syedare cke lergare? Do you know the quietest places to sit and read?
Dze estats nula bona razono kye ganare. There is no good reason to go.

 

In the first sentence kye following lwokoy clearly means ‘in which’ or ‘where’, whereas in the second sentence, following razono it clearly means ‘because of which’ or ‘why’.

 

Note that in all of the Ayola compact forms discussed in this section the infinitive must be preceded by one of the two relative words kyo or kye. It may never follow the noun directly.

 

3.6.5 Test for Using Clausal or Relative Words

A good test which the student may use to decide between the use of a clausal or a relative word is the following:

 

Does the clause answer:

  1. a pronominal question (who, what)
  2. an adjectival question (which, what kind of)

If it answers a pronominal question use a clausal word.

If it answers an adjectival question use a relative word.

 

Let us apply this test to the sentences below:

 

Hwo vu dicits aru la doco? What did you tell the teacher?
Myo dicits aru la doco kiyo studats pluste bone. I told the teacher who studies best.
   
Aru hwa instrukto vu dicits? What teacher did you tell?
Myo dicits aru la doco kyo studats pluste bone. I told (something to) the teacher who studies best.
 

3.7 Determiners

Determiners are words that specify the reference of a noun or noun phrase; they occur at the beginning of their phrases and specify attributes such as proximity (this chair (here) but that chair (there)), quantity (some chairs, many chairs), identity (the same chair, a different chair), or possession (my chair, your chair). Determiners include many categories of words, some of which have been described in previous chapters of this text:

 

  • articles (la, le, lo)
  • possessive determiners (myoza, vuza, etc.)
  • quantifiers (una, dusa, etc.)
  • logical determiners (amba, aydra, awdra, nedra)
  • demonstratives (tisa, tata)
  • identity/difference determiners (mema, otra)

 

Determiners not yet described in this text are discussed in the sections below.

 

3.7.1 Demonstrative Determiners and Pronouns

The demonstrative determiners and pronouns provide a compact way of contrasting nearer and farther people and things. Demonstrative pronouns may take the plural inflection.

 

Table 3.7-1 Demonstrative Determiners and Pronouns

 

Type Root Determiner Pronoun
demonstrative near tis- tisa this kind of tiso(y) this one, these ones
demonstrative far tat- tata that kind of tato(y) that one, those ones

 

Moy mandjuts tata pulay karno anu tinokto. We will eat that chicken (meat) tonight.
Ye vu lergits tisa libro? Did you read this book?
Tiso estats profesoro coe tato estats administro. This is a professor but that is an administrator.
Plea ponaw tisoy awnu la desko ce tatoy awnu la tablo. Please put these on the desk and those on the table.
 

3.7.2 Identity and Difference Determiners and Pronouns

The identity and difference determiners and pronouns provide a compact way of contrasting the same and different people or things. The identity and difference pronouns may take the plural inflection.

 

Table 3.7-2 Identity and Difference Determiners and Pronouns

 

Type Root Determiner Pronoun
identity mem- mema same kind of memo(y) same one(s)
difference otr- otra another kind of otro(y) other one(s)

 

Dya bibuts la mema gebibo. He will drink the same beverage.
Ye dze estats otra cozoy kyo vu vwelits? Are there other things that you wanted?
Myo vwelits awdare la memo coe myo awdits otro. I wanted to hear the same but I heard another.
Djon kredats la memoy coe Djordj kredats otroy. John believes the same (things) but George believes others.
 

3.8 Interrogative, Clausal, Relative, and Conjunctive Forms of ‘When’ and ‘Where’

The English words when and where describe several potentially ambiguous functions. Ayola has separate interrogative, clausal, relative, and conjunctive forms for these concepts.

 

In English, potential confusion results from certain ambiguous constructions, such as do you understand when the professor explains? In this sentence it is possible that when is acting conjunctively, joining the two clauses do you understand and the professor explains with a time relation, but it is also possible that when is acting clausally, subordinating the clause when the professor explains to the main clause do you understand.

 

The interrogative sense of these words appears in questions, in initial position. The clausal sense signals a subordinate clause where the clausal word is the subject and appears clause-initially. The relative sense modifies a noun with a temporal or spatial clause, it is sometimes rendered as in which in English. The conjunctive sense conjoins two clauses with temporal relationship and appears medially between the clauses. The following table illustrates the senses of when and where in Ayola.

 

English Ayola
Word Example Word Example
Interrogative
When When did he leave? Hwande Hwande dya departits?
Where Where did he go? Hwerve Hwerve dya ganits?
Clausal
when I don’t know when he left. kiwande Myo no sabats kiwande dya departits.
where I don’t know where he went. kiwerve Myo no sabats kiwerve dya ganits.
Relative
When April is the month when I begin to eat outside anu kyo Le aprilo estats la monato anu kyo myo natcwats madjare efzgrade.
Where Boston is the city where I was born. enu kyo Boston estats la urbo enu kyo myo naskyits.
Conjunctive
when We will leave when this song ends. anke Moy departuts anke tisa cansono finyuts.
where We will go where the party is. enke Moy ganuts enke la festo estats.
 

3.9 Contrafactual/Hypothetical Sentences

 

Contrafactual/Hypothetical Elementary Word

The hypothetical situation-event adverb wa is used to indicate that a state or action is hypothetical instead of actually occurring. It must always directly follow the subject of the verb that it modifies. Wa can be used with any Ayola verb tense or aspect.

 

The combination of wa and a verb is equivalent to the conditional mood in English and many other languages.

 

La puelo wa ganats. The girl would go (in general).
La puelo wa ganits anu herjo. The girl would have gone yesterday.
La puelo wa ganuts anu la neksta semano. The girl would go next week.
La puelo wa naganats. The girl would be going.
La puelo wa naganits. The girl would have been going.
La puelo wa naganuts. The girl would be going (in the future).
La puelo wa niganats nune. The girl would have gone by now.
La puelo wa nuganats nune. The girl would be about to go by now.

 

In Ayola sentences having two clauses connected by ci…cu, or cwi…cu the adverb wa is used before the verb in both clauses. The verbs in the two clauses must always agree in tense. Note that such agreement between the two clauses is not the case in English.

 

Ci la biblioteko wa permitats la swonajo jwi muziko ene cu myo wa awskultats dwa ofte. If the library allowed the playing of music inside then I would listen to  it often (in general).
Ci la biblioteko wa permitits la swonajo jwi muziko ene cu myo wa awskultits dwa ofte. If the library had allowed the playing of music inside then I would have listened to it often.
Ci la biblioteko wa permituts la swonajo jwi muziko ene cu myo wa awskultuts dwa ofte. If the library would allow the playing of music inside then I would listen to it often (in the future).

 

Note that the English translations of the second clause in the first and third sentences shown above are the same because English has no way of distinctly specifying the future tense in the conditional mood.  Here are more examples:

 

Ci le katso wa volats cu le hundo wa timats. If cats flew then dogs would be afraid (in general).
Ci la herjay vetero wa estits bona cu moy wa ganits alu la pladjo. If yesterday’s weather had been good then we would have gone to the beach.

 

In clauses connected by necwi…cu, wa is used only in the subordinate clause because the main clause is not hypothetical.

 

Necwi dya wa andits alu la butiko cu dya probable arivits alu la haymo atu seso. Unless she went to the store then she probably arrived home at six.

 

In negative constructions, the word wa precedes the negative word no.

 

Ci dze wa estits pluse bona skulo cu dyay wa no mustits docare aru syoy kiworde lergare. If there had been a better school then they wouldn’t have had to teach themselves how to read.
Comments
  1. Steve

    Clarification Needed – 3.1.2 Negation

    I understand the overall concept for needing to negate an entire sentence as opposed to a part of speech. However, I’m not sure if I am understanding the actual examples in the section.

    For instance, “This bus is not going south” doesn’t sound like a sentence where the entire sentence is being negated, just the direction that the bus is going (“There is a bus, it is going somewhere, but it is not going in a southern direction”). If the affirmative equivalent of the sentence is “This bus is going south,” wouldn’t the entire sentence being negative be the equivalent of “there is no bus going south” or even “there is no bus going anywhere”?

    Perhaps part of my difficulty is in the “It is not the case that” dynamic. Would “Nio” be used with a negative sentence such as “There is no cup on top of the table” [It is not the case that there is a cup on the table] (positive equivalent “there is a cup on the table”). By adding “no” in front of ‘cup’ instead of “Nio” in front of the whole sentence, would “There is no cup on the table” mean “There is something on the table but it is not a cup”?

    Thank you.

    Reply
    1. Maggie Post author

      You make a great point Steve! We’re working hard on this clarification and hope to reach a consensus soon. We’ll let you know of any developments.

      Reply
    2. Maggie Post author

      Hey Steve,

      We’re sorry for not getting back to you on this sooner. We definitely want to take our time to consider this carefully to make sure that it makes sense within the parameters of Ayola while also searching for other examples that may help with clarification. We’ll get back to you as soon as we can.

      Reply

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